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形意拳是中国武术实战技击的骄傲

形意拳是中国武坛上一棵苍劲不凋的树,一丛常开不败的花。形意拳是中国武术的宝贵遗产,它的理论、功法、技击均有相当高的学术价值,其练法一直保持了古拳原貌,所有的实战拳术均可加以借鉴。其养生功法历来为世人所重视,形意拳从诞生起就以实战为主导思想,数百年来一直引导着搏击潮流。从古到今,名家高手辈出。毫不客气地说,形意拳就是中国传统武技的骄傲!
形意拳,源于心意拳、心意六合拳,象形取意,撷取虎的勇猛、燕的敏捷、猴的灵巧、蛇的柔韧等十二种动物的搏击特长,在手、眼、身法上各有其妙。形意拳以五行拳(劈、崩、钻、炮、横)为主要拳法,以《九要论》为核心理论,创造出独特的技击攻防技术和理论。在实战技击中,形意拳强调以下内容:
一、以我为主,敢打必胜
形意拳要求“遇敌有主,临危不惧”、“能在一思进,莫在一思存”、“打人需先夺中门,就是神仙也难防”。这里“思进”、“有主”都明确指出了“以我为主”的技击指导思想,遇敌时要求先下手为强,一定要“临危不惧”,才能“先发制人”,只有具备先发制人的思想,才能攻其不备、克敌制胜,在拳谚中一再突出战斗进取精神,如“打人如走路,看人如蒿草”,操练时要“面前无人如有人”,交手时要“面前有人似无人”,如崩拳、虎形、龙虎相交都鲜明地体现出这一特征。
二、出拳迅速,防守严密
形意拳在技击防守方面,有顾打、截法、追法三个特点,顾法者用手、肘、身蔽住,顾之身,使之不能移动;截法者,截手、截腿、截面、截身,顾、截、追一气贯穿,即所谓“随身紧追,追风赶月,而不放松”,技术动作朴实明快,直来直往,一伸一曲,没有花架,打也是防、防也是打、进也是打、退也是打,攻防紧紧连接在一起。技击动作简捷、朴实,明确了随身、步出、手到的独特特征。
三、七拳并用,虚实结合
形意拳称头、肩、肘、手、胯、膝、脚为七拳,处处可发、处处可用,“远了便上手,近来便加肘,远了用脚踢,近来便加膝”,“脚打七分,手打三,五行四梢要合全”,交手中虚虚实实,如虎之行无声、龙之行莫测,使敌手难以捉摸和防御。拳谚说“拳打三节不见影,见影不为能。”形成了形意拳“出手低,退步高”,起钻落翻的技击特点。
四、知己知人,相机而行
形意拳主张因敌变化。“与敌人交手,不可拘使成法,需视敌情形而行之”,要做到“拳无拳,意无意,无拳无意是真意,方算上乘功夫,攻防结合,做到步到、手到、腿到。技击中主要体现“六方之妙”,即巧、妙、自然、果断、快速、不容情,勿使对手变化逃脱。
形意拳在攻防技击中主要突出防中、守中、打中的主要特征,出手是打,回手也是打,招招杀手,动动有法,绝不做空动作,不论前后左右,手动步必跟,步到手必到。发生助力,先声夺人。打人不必预先定点,哪儿顺打哪儿,拳要突发,因为攻击是最好的防卫。与敌人交手时,只管发挥特长,忘我拼搏,不要考虑后果,顾忌太多,就无法动了,打人要进身,手脚齐到方为真。头要抵、身要撞、手要打、腿要趟,举手不留情。心要居先,势要争先,先者胜,后者败。这就是形意拳技击必胜的重要特征。


作者简介:张武,原名张荣平,1970年生于云南省昭通市,自幼喜武,曾习武于少林寺,走南闯北,拜多位武术名家为师学习少林拳械、长拳、南拳、散打、摔跤、截拳道、国家规定拳械等。1990年拜意拳名家夏成群为师学意拳,1992年拜北京形意拳、八卦掌名师许繁曾先生为师习形意拳、八卦掌拳械,同时得到多位武术名师精心指导。多次参加国内外武术散打比赛,并摘金夺银。现任北京中国武术技击学校校长兼总教练、房山中原武术学校总教练、北京市房山嵩山少林寺武馆馆长、中国精武协会副理事长兼教练委员会主任、北大武术技击研究会教练、河南省精武协会房山分会主席、世界文化艺术研究中心研究员、北京武协形意拳研究会副会长。1993年3月在北京房山开办武校至今,培养学生数千人,众多弟子在国内外各大武术比赛中获取佳绩。《当代武术家词典》、《世界名人录》、《世界人物辞海》等权威工具书收录张武的先进事迹。
Introduction: Zhang Wu, formally known as Zhang Rongping, born in Zhaotong, Yunnan province, was fond of wushu since childhood. He once learned wushu in Shaolin Temple and learned Shaolin weapons, Changquan, Nanquan, Sanda, Wrestling, Jeet Kune Do and other kinds of boxing from many famous Wushu masters. In 1990, he acknowledged Master Xia Chengqun as mentor to learn Will Boxing. In 1992, he learned Form-and-Will Boxing and Eight-Diagram Boxing from Master Xu Fanzeng. Meanwhile, he also got some guidance from other famous wushu masters. He took part in competitions at home and abroad and had won gold and silver medals for several times. Zhang Wu is the current president and general coach of Beijing Chinese Wushu Technique School, general coach of Zhongyuan Wushu School in Fangshan District, curator of the Songshan Shaolin Temple Wushu Centre, vice director-general of Chinese Jingwu Association and chief of Coach Committee, coach of Wushu Technique Committee of Peking University, chairman of Jingwu Association in Henan province, researcher of World Culture and Art Research Centre, vice chairman of Beijing Will-and-Form Boxing Research Society. Since he opened the wushu school in Fangshan District in March, 1993 until now, Zhang Wu has brought up thousands of students most of whom have got good results during competitions at home and abroad. His outstanding deeds were included in “A Dictionary of Contemporary Wushu Masters”, “Celebrities in the World”, “A Dictionary of Famous personalities in the World” and other authoritative books.
 

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